from mathematical notation to beautiful diagrams

by Katherine Ye1, Wode Ni1, Max Krieger1, Dor Ma'ayan1, 2, Jenna Wise1, Jonathan Aldrich1, Joshua Sunshine1, and Keenan Crane1

1Carnegie Mellon University, 2Technion

appearing in SIGGRAPH 2020


front page of SIGGRAPH '20 paper


Teaser video


We introduce a system called Penrose for creating mathematical diagrams. Its basic functionality is to translate abstract statements written in familiar math-like notation into one or more possible visual representations. Rather than rely on a fixed library of visualization tools, the visual representation is user-defined in a constraint-based specification language; diagrams are then generated automatically via constrained numerical optimization. The system is user-extensible to many domains of mathematics, and is fast enough for iterative design exploration. In contrast to tools that specify diagrams via direct manipulation or low-level graphics programming, Penrose enables rapid creation and exploration of diagrams that faithfully preserve the underlying mathematical meaning. We demonstrate the effectiveness and generality of the system by showing how it can be used to illustrate a diverse set of concepts from mathematics and computer graphics.

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Selected figures

Point p, q, r, s
Segment a := {p, q}
Segment b := {p, r}
Point m := Midpoint(a)
Angle theta := ∠(q, p, r)
Triangle t := {p, r, s}
Ray w := Bisector(theta)
Ray h := PerpendicularBisector(a)

See caption below

Fig. 1. Penrose is a framework for specifying how mathematical statements should be interpreted as visual diagrams. A clean separation between abstract mathematical objects and their visual representation provides new capabilities beyond existing code- or GUI-based tools. Here, for instance, the same set of statements is given three different visual interpretations, via Euclidean, spherical, and hyperbolic geometry. (Further samples are shown in Fig. 29.)

PathType t
Path p := Sample(t)

Fig. 4. By specifying diagrams in terms of abstract relationships rather than explicit graphical directives, they are easily adapted to a wide variety of use cases. Here we use identical Penrose code to generate ray tracing diagrams for several targets (Sec 5.6). Though the arrangement and number of objects changes in each example, the meaning remains the same.

For any vector space X, let u, v ∈ X be orthogonal vectors of equal length, and let w = u + v. Then u and w make a 45◦ angle.

VectorSpace X
Vector u, v ∈ X
Orthogonal(u, v)
EqualLength(u, v)
Vector w ∈ X
w := u + v

See caption below

Fig. 7. Extensibility enables users to adopt conventions and notation that reflect the way they naturally write mathematical prose. Here, the resulting diagram plays the role of the concluding statement.

See caption below

Fig. 8. An optimization-based approach makes it possible to jointly optimize visual attributes that are difficult to coordinate by hand. Here for instance we optimize color contrast according to the spatial proximity of adjacent disks (left to right), ultimately discovering a two-color solution (far right). The system can also be used to debug the optimization process itself—in this case by drawing the hue of each disk as a dot on a color wheel.

See caption below

Fig. 9. A language-based design makes it easy to build tools on top of Penrose that provide additional power. Here we use standard techniques from program synthesis (Sec. 5.7) to automatically enumerate how the given relationships can be realized. Generating such examples helps to see important corner cases that might be missed when drawing diagrams by hand (where perhaps the top-left diagram most easily comes to mind).

See caption below

Fig. 17. Our system supports integration with web-based applications. Here a Penrose IDE provides automatic syntax highlighting and autocomplete for any user-defined domain.

-- Sets.dsl
type Set
predicate Intersecting : Set s1 * Set s2
predicate IsSubset : Set s1 * Set s2
predicate Not : Prop p
notation "A ⊂ B" ~ "IsSubset(A, B)"
notation "A ∩ B = ∅" ~ "Not(Intersecting(A, B))"

-- Sets.sub
Set A, B, C, D, E, F, G
B ⊂ A
C ⊂ A
D ⊂ B
E ⊂ B
F ⊂ C
G ⊂ C
E ∩ D = ∅
F ∩ G = ∅
B ∩ C = ∅

-- Sets-Disks.sty
forall Set x {

x.shape = Circle { strokeWidth : 0.0 }
x.text = Text { string : x.label }
ensure contains(x.shape, x.text)
encourage sameCenter(x.text, x.shape)
layer x.shape below x.text


forall Set x; Set y
where IsSubset(x, y) {

ensure contains(y.shape, x.shape)
ensure smallerThan(x.shape, y.shape)
ensure outsideOf(y.text, x.shape)
layer x.shape above y.shape
layer y.text below x.shape


forall Set x; Set y
where NotIntersecting(x, y) {

ensure disjoint(x.shape, y.shape)


See caption below

Fig. 18. Here, some Substance code is used to specify set relationships. Different Style programs not only tweak the visual style (e.g., flat vs. shaded disks), but allow one to use a completely different visual representation (e.g., a tree showing set inclusions). Sets.sty above describes the flat disk style.

-- Injection.sub
Set A, B
f: A -> B

-- Surjection.sub
Set A, B
f: A -> B

-- Bijection.sub
Set A, B
f: A -> B

See caption below

Fig. 19. Different visual representations provide different ways of thinking about an idea. Here, the notion of injections, bijections, and surjections is illustrated in both discrete (left) and continuous (right) styles. In the former, functions with the desired properties are randomly generated by an SMT solver, allowing the user to learn from many different examples.

This diagram was created with Penrose ( on 2020-01-16. If you have any suggestions on making this diagram more accessible, please contact us. const.plane CBDE.shape CKLE.shape BDLK.shape DB.shape2 BAGF.shape BF.shape2 AL.shape2 ACIH.shape ABC.shape CBD.shape CBA.shape FBA.shape CAB.shape BF.shape CA.shape BC.shape AL.shape KL.shape DB.shape AD.shape DE.shape K.shape Circle representing K.shape I.shape Circle representing I.shape H.shape Circle representing H.shape G.shape Circle representing G.shape E.shape Circle representing E.shape D.shape Circle representing D.shape L.shape Circle representing L.shape AB.shape CF.shape F.shape Circle representing F.shape C.shape Circle representing C.shape B.shape Circle representing B.shape A.shape Circle representing A.shape const.plane ABC.shape CAB.shape CA.shape BC.shape C.shape Circle representing C.shape AB.shape B.shape Circle representing B.shape A.shape Circle representing A.shape const.plane CBDE.shape BAGF.shape ACIH.shape ABC.shape CAB.shape CA.shape BC.shape I.shape Circle representing I.shape H.shape Circle representing H.shape G.shape Circle representing G.shape F.shape Circle representing F.shape E.shape Circle representing E.shape D.shape Circle representing D.shape C.shape Circle representing C.shape AB.shape B.shape Circle representing B.shape A.shape Circle representing A.shape

Fig. 22. Once a complex diagram has been built, it can be easily broken into pieces or stages by, e.g., commenting out lines of Substance code. Here we illustrate steps in Euclid's proof of the Pythagorean theorem, turning Byrne's static figure (far right) into a progressive "comic strip."

SimplicialComplex K
Edge e ∈ K

Subcomplex E ⊆ K
E := Closure(e)

SimplicialSet StE ⊆ K
StE := Star(E)

Subcomplex ClStE ⊆ K
ClStE := Closure(StE)

Subcomplex ClE ⊆ K
ClE := Closure(E)

SimplicialSet StClE ⊆ K
StClE := Star(ClE)

SimplicialSet LkE ⊆ K
LkE := SetMinus(ClStE, StClE)

See caption below

Fig. 24. A language-based specification makes it easy to visually inspect data structures or assemble progressive diagrams with only minor changes to program code. Here we draw the simplicial link by building it up from simpler constituent operations.

See caption below

Fig. 29. Though the energy in the objective function can help guide a sampling strategy, choosing which diagram looks "best" to a given user is necessarily a subjective decision. The ability to automatically generate many alternatives makes it easier to find a satisfactory diagram. Here we show a gallery of automatically-generated variants of Fig. 1.

More information



We thank Lily Shellhammer and Yumeng Du for their help. The first author was supported by a Microsoft Research PhD Fellowship and ARCS Foundation Fellowship while completing this work; the last author was supported by a Packard Fellowship. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grants DMS-1439786 and CCF-1910264, the AFRL and DARPA under agreement FA8750-16-2-0042, and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation under award G-2019-11406.

How to cite

ACM reference format

Katherine Ye, Wode Ni, Max Krieger, Dor Ma’ayan, Jenna Wise, Jonathan Aldrich, Joshua Sunshine, and Keenan Crane. 2020. Penrose: From Mathematical Notation to Beautiful Diagrams. ACM Trans. Graph. 39, 4, Article 144 (July 2020), 16 pages.


author = {Ye, Katherine and Ni, Wode and Krieger, Max and Ma'ayan, Dor and Wise, Jenna and Aldrich, Jonathan and Sunshine, Jonathan and Crane, Keenan},
title = {Penrose: From Mathematical Notation to Beautiful Diagrams},
journal = {ACM Trans. Graph.},
volume = {39},
number = {4},
year = {2020},
publisher = {ACM},
address = {New York, NY, USA}

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